Date of Award

Fall 12-16-2017

Semester of Degree


Document Type

Open Access Thesis

Degree Name

M.S. in Environmental and Forest Biology


Environmental and Forest Biology

Steering Committee Member

Donald Leopold

Steering Committee Member

Gregory G. McGee

Steering Committee Member

Brian Underwood


Northern white-cedar swamps have been shown to have relatively high plant species richness. The northern-white cedar swamps on Fort Drum in northern New York, have no known study of understory plant richness. My interest was in the abiotic and biotic conditions that promote richness in these wetlands. A survey of the herbaceous and woody plant species under 10.16- centimeter dbh in the 10 northern white-cedar swamps revealed 211 plant species, 26 of which were on the New York state protected plant list. Standardized swamp richness ranged from 78 to 99 vascular plant species. Multiple regression analysis revealed that soil conductivity and depth to water table most influenced the richness. Results of relative deer density estimates revealed that higher relative deer density swamps had lower species richness than lower relative deer density swamps. Swamps closer to the Fort Drum Impact Area were found to have lower deer density than those further away.