Earl Patric

Document Type

Technical Report

Publication Date



"The general objective of the job is to determine the effectiveness of seed source plantings of fruit-bearing shrubs as a forest wildlife management technique. It is well established that these shrubs are scarce in Adirondack forests, and it is possible that the scarcity limits some species of wildlife. If small nuclei of shrub stocks could be established under favorable conditions, these nuclei could supply fruit for wildlife. It is also possible that they could be induced to spread, through proper culture of forest areas surrounding these nuclei. The first objective, then, is to identify successful shrubs for wildlife plantings. The second objective is to gain insight into their utility as seed source plantings."

Project Title

Wildlife Habitat Improvement Investigations in the Central Adirondack Mountains


"Of the eight species of shrubs tried sea buckthorn (Hyppophae rhamnoides) and Zhuma apple (Malus zhuma) showed some promise as seed source planting stock for wildlife. Sea buckthorn has numerous attractive attributes which include limited stature, early fruiting, nutritious fruits, highly persistent fruit, growth on infertile soils, resistance to winterkill, and immunity to browsing. Dense thorny thickets would provide cover for small wildlife. The plant root sprouts with some vigor and will spread where planted under proper conditions. Wildlife utilization in Adirondack conditions must still be demonstrated. Zhuma apple is an attractive prospect where protection from animal damage can be supplied. It fruits early and bears a nutritious, persistent fruit heavily utilized by song birds. It is probably more demanding of site than sea buckthorn, and is unlikely to spread as a seed source planting."